Thursday, 8 July 2010

The Memorial Chapel of the Border Regiment, Holy Trinity, Kendal

The Memorial Chapel of the Border Regiment
Holy Trinity

The Bellingham chapel at Holy Trinity, dates originally from the 16th century, and was built by Sir Roger Bellingham (his tomb is situated here in this chapel) The Crown of thorns that hangs over the chapel, formerly occupied the space above the central alter, but was moved here when the chapel was adopted as the Memorial chapel of the Border Regiment. The Crown of Thorns is dedicated to Bernard Gilpin, otherwise known as the Apostle of the North. The beautiful blue ceiling is home to 16 coats of arms, all shown here.

Above. A view of the decorated ceiling of the Bellingham Chapel.

Above. I think this shield shows the Burneside arms on either side.

Above. A shield showing the Ross (in Scotland) arms.

Above. I'm not sure if this is specifically a coat of arms, or just some sort of symbolically important design.

Above. This shield seems to vaguely depict the arms of the Bellingham or Forrester families...though the two star symbols may mean this is some other family coat of arms.

Above. The same shield, but this time not as detailed, and upside down!

Above. The Crackenthorpe family arms.

Above. The Sandeford family arms. Two boars heads above a field of ermine.

Above. The Burneside family arms again.

Above. An unidentified coat of arms. Three gold fleur-de-lis on a blue shield.

Above. Possibly the Burneside family arms, but with the confusion of the right hand side shield. It's upside down if it too, belongs to the Burneside family.

Above. A shield that vaguely depicts the Crackenthorpe family arms again, but this time with a single blue fleur-de-lis in the centre.

Above. At last a simple one to identify. The arms of the de Lancaster family.

Above. Possibly the a form of the Sandeford family...although this shield only bears one boars head above a smaller quarter of ermine.

Above. The arms of the Bellingham family of Levens.

Above. The arms of the Bellingham (not of Levens) A single hunter's horn suspended on gold rope.

Holy Trinity is rich in history, and is well worth a visit. However, don't pay it a fleeting visit...make sure that you have plenty of time to delve into all the corners and all of the shadows to make sure that you get a glimpse of all the treasure it has to offer. Check their website out for more information, including a complete list of memorials both inside and outside of the church.

Wednesday, 7 July 2010

More heraldry in Holy Trinity, Kendal

More heraldry in Holy Trinity in Kendal

Hidden in the high ceiling of the Parr chapel in the South Eastern corner of the church, are a number of small wooden shields depicting the arms of some of the most important families in the Kendal area. As you stand looking at the Eastern end of the church, cast your eyes sky-ward, and along each side, where the wall meets the roof, the shields can be seen. There are also a number of 'maiden's heads', traditionally said to be the crest of the Parr family. Also to be seen, are four shields on the top of Sir Roger and Lady Margaret Bellingham's tomb, to be found in the Bellingham chapel at the North Eastern end of the church. It is these shields that are shown below first.

The Bellingham Chapel.

The Bellingham Chapel is to be found in what has now been adopted as the Memorial Chapel of the Border Regiment (their arms can be seen in the window) The Bellingham tomb belongs to Sir Roger and Lady Margaret Bellingham. The brasses now to be seen on top of the tomb are replicas of the originals, which were stolen in the 17th century. The brass at the foot of the tomb (not shown here) contains the following epitaph "Here under lyeth Sir Roger Bellingham, Knt. (which of his own proper costs and charges builded the chapell of our Lady within this church of Kendall), and of Margaret, his wife, daur. of Sir Robert Aske, Knight, and of Elizabeth, his wife, daur. to the Lord John Clifford, now created Earl of Cumberland, which Sir Roger died the 18th day of July, A.D. 1533, and the sd. Margaret dyed the - day of - , A.D. 15 -, whose souls Jhesu pardon"

On the wall next to the tomb, is a brass dating from 1577, and commemorates Sir Alan Bellingham.

Above. A shield bearing the arms of the Bellinghams of Levens.

The bugles in this shield represent the senior branch of the Bellingham family of Levens Hall. A nice simple coat of arms to identify.

Above. A shield bearing the arms of the Bellingham and Burneside families.

This shield is split into quarters. The top left and bottom right quarters each contain the three bugles which represent the senior line of the Bellingham family of Levens Hall. The top right and bottom left quarters, contain the arms of the Burneside family....diagonal lines with a lion in the top left of the shield.

Above. A shield bearing the arms of the Moulton family (or Multon)

This is another simple coat of arms to identify. The shield is split by horizontal bands, and in the center, a 'golden annulet' represented by the ring.

Above. Shield bearing the arms of the Bellingham, Burneside and Gilpin families.

Another complicated shield, this time with five parts to it. Firstly, the entire right hand side of the shield is occupied by the Gilpin arms....a boar under a tree. The left hand side of the shield is split as follows: Bottom left and top right, contains the arms of the Burneside family. The top left and bottom right contain the three bugles of the Bellingham family of Levens Hall.

The Parr Chapel.

The Parr chapel dates from the 14th century, and is perhaps the 'busiest' part of the entire church where heraldic devices are concerned. There are a total of 15 shields in this chapel alone, all mounted high on the wall.

Above. Fitting that this shield is in the Parr chapel....these are the arms of Queen Katherine Parr.

Her arms as Queen consort can be seen at this link. Check this link for a short biography of Katherine Parr.

Above. An unidentified coat of arms, but with familiar elements.

This shield ultimately portrays a member of the Parr family's arms...though I've not been able to identify just who's it is. It is nearly the same as Sir Thomas Parr's, though there are subtle differences in the top left quarter.

Above. The Ros of Wark arms quartered with the Parr arms.

I've not been able to identify the individual that would have owned these arms...but the shield is quartered as follows: Top left and bottom right bears the arms of the Parr family. Top right and bottom left bears the arms of the Ros family of Wark.

Above. A shield depicting the arms of the Parr family of Kendal.

The top right hand quarter of this shield, contains the arms of the Fitzhugh family. The bottom right hand quarter contains the Ros family arms. The top left quarter contains the arms of the Parr family, and the bottom left quarter contains the arms of the Marmion family.

Above. A shield depicting the arms of the Ros family of Wark.

The arms for the Ros family shows three 'water bougets' which I think were leather bags for carrying water in.

Above. A shield depicting the arms of the de Lancaster family.

The following seven photos show the maiden heads that can be found on four of the small wooden shields, and three on the walls. There is a fourth carved maiden's head, on one of the pillars, though this hasn't been photographed yet.

The maiden heads were traditionally the badge of the Parr family, and they are certainly well represented here. The representations of the maiden on the wooden shields are far more decorative and intricate than their stone carved counterparts.

Tuesday, 6 July 2010

St Mary's Abbey, York

St Mary's Abbey

Situated in the park (Museum Gardens), sandwiched between Marygate, Bootham and accessible from Museum Street, the standing ruins of the Abbey of St Mary are a direct opposite of the grandeur and completeness of York Minster.

Above. The North wall of the church.

The Benedictine Abbey was established in 1055 and dedicated to Saint Olave, but was re-founded in 1088 by William II, who was reputed to have laid the foundation stone of the new Norman building. The original church, deemed too small for its growing congregation by William, although no longer standing, can still be seen as a curve of stones in the turf...representing the apse of the church.

Above. The North wall of the church, and part of the cross wall.

It was from the monks at St Mary, that Fountains Abbey was established. A group left after disagreeing with the rigid Benedictine way of life in 1132, and travelled North to establish what was to become the largest and richest Cistercian abbey in England.

Above. The North wall of the church, looking East.

The abbey ruins, as seen today, represent a period of building that took place between 1271 and 1294, resulting in one of the largest and richest Benedictine Abbeys in the North of well as one of the largest land owners in England.

Above. The footings of the apse from the original Norman church.

As with all of England's monastic houses, the 1539 Dissolution of the Monasteries saw the abbey closed down and its lands and wealth confiscated by the Crown. All that remains today, are the North and West walls and a few other pieces of masonry and excavated foundations of out-buildings. The West gate also remains, standing between the church of St Olave and the gatekeepers lodge.

Above. The East end of the abbey precincts, showing rubble ruins and foundations.

Much of the abbey precinct walls and towers were also left standing, most likely because they formed an integral part of the defensive walls of the city of York.

St Leonard's Hospital, York

St Leonard's Hospital
Museum Street

The tantalising ruins of St Leonard's Hospital are accessible from the Museum Gardens just off Museum Street. Originally one of the largest medieval hospitals in the North of England, St Leonards was established sometime around 1137, and was built to serve the sick and needy of York and the surrounding areas. The ruins that can be seen today, consist of the under croft next to Museum Street, complete with stone sarcophagi, and walls constructed of both medieval and roman masonry.

Above. St Leonard's from the park off Museum Street.

The hospital was built on the site of St Peter's Hospital which was destroyed by fire in 1137, prompting the rebuild and the re-dedication. The hospital worked hand in hand with the Minster, but was a totally self sufficient establishment...brewing its own ale, producing its own bread and other foodstuffs, and would most likely have had a whole host of craftsmen living in and around the complex of buildings. As with the nearby Abbey of St Mary, the hospital suffered at the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539. York was therefore left without a hospital until the late 1740's.

Above. St Leonard's from Library Square.

Above. The tunnel into St Leonards from the park.

Above. Roman or medieval stone graves.

Above. Roman or medieval stone graves.

The under croft of the hospital is accessible at any time during the day, where the rib vaulted ceilings can still be seen, leading through to the Museum gardens where the Roman multangular tower can be seen, and the (possibly) Saxon tower.

St Saviour, York

St Saviour
St Saviourgate

Above. St Saviour from St Saviourgate.

Above. St Saviour from St Saviourgate.

Above. The tower from the carpark looking onto Hungate to the West.

St Olave, York

St Olave

St Olaves nestles safely behind the walls of St Mary's Abbey just North of the River Ouse. The walls here are about fifteen feet high, and St Olaves can be seen towering above the parapet along Marygate running to the church's West.

Above. St Olave from Marygate to the NorthWest.

St Olave is a pale, almost ghostly looking building, dating from around 1055, and dedicated to the patron saint of Norway. Olave was a Christian convert, switching faith whilst fighting in England. He was King of Norway for thirteen years (1016 to 1029) Although during his reign he was regarded as a tyrannical king, when Norway was invaded and occupied his fellow countrymen began to see him as the embodiment of Norway, and so he became a national hero.

Above. St Olave's tower from within the gatehouse courtyard.

It is mentioned in historical documents, that Earl Siward died in 1055, and was buried in a church which he had built, called area outside the city walls somewhere near the site of today's Marygate area. It is likely that this represented the original church here on Marygate. Sometime after 1066, Earl Alan from Brittany, gave the church and its lands to Stephen of Whitby as the site upon which he was to build an abbey. Some twenty three years later, the site was a cramped collection of buildings, and there was no more room for expansion. William I gave them land adjoining the grounds of St Olave's, and the Abbey of St Mary was built.

Above. St Olave from Marygate with a section of the abbey precinct wall in the foreground.

In 1466, work started on expanding the church, and the smaller 11th century building gradually began to be swallowed up by a larger church....a building that is largely what we see it today. The church suffered badly during the civil war, and was at one point even used as a gun platform during the siege of York. It seems that the building suffered during this period, and it wasn't until the early 18th century that repairs were carried out. Rebuilding was done using much stone from the abbey next door.

Above. The gatehouse and lodge facing onto Marygate.

The gatehouse to the grounds of St Mary's Abbey, was originally built in the 12th century, but only the side walls now survive (those parts that lay behind the archway) The arch you pass beneath was built in 1470, as were the walls to the left of the arch in the photo above. The building to the right of the gate is St Mary's Lodge.